Status and harm of "replacing copper with aluminum" in transformer
Transformer "replacing copper with aluminum" refers to the phenomenon that distribution transformer windings use aluminum, aluminum alloy or copper clad aluminum to replace copper material, but it is not truthfully identified in the name plate.
The harm of transformer to society is shown in the following aspects:
1、 "Replacing copper with aluminum" transformer endangers the life, body or property safety of unspecified or most people. From the perspective of criminal law, it is a crime of endangering the safety of public relations and a serious criminal act.
Dry type transformer is generally used in high-rise buildings, commercial buildings, libraries, airports, data centers, factories and other public and public places. If a fire or explosion occurs in such places, it will inevitably lead to great damage to people's lives and property. The explosion of large-scale oil immersed transformer is bound to be a major disaster.
Two, China's "one belt, one road" strategy is harmful to China. In the construction of one belt, one road has been repeatedly exploded in the Nepal, which is replaced by aluminum instead of copper. If China's China one belt, one road to take up China's manufacturing credibility, it will be devastating.
3、 "Replacing copper with aluminum" transformer is a major threat to China's construction of manufacturing power. If made in China can't even keep the basic bottom line, and if fake drugs, fake food, fake industrial products, and piracy are rampant, we can't build a manufacturing power on this basis. It's only a matter of time before a tower rises on the beach and collapses. Therefore, fighting against fake industrial products and industrial fraud is an important part of the construction of China's quality power.
4、 "Replacing copper with aluminum" transformer makes the assets of industrial enterprises and new energy projects depreciate seriously. If the assets of an enterprise are transformers with aluminum instead of copper, it is an asset with a substantial depreciation, an asset that will inevitably bring high risks, and an asset that will happen sooner or later. If a large number of such assets enter any project or enterprise's balance sheet, it is a major potential threat to the enterprise and the project.
How to identify "replacing copper with aluminum" in transformer
Theoretically speaking, the transformer made by the same manufacturer can be identified whether aluminum winding is used by measuring and data statistics. However, it is difficult to judge whether copper and aluminum are used as reference materials to replace copper and aluminum in various manufacturing methods.
As a transformer user, the post detection is passive. Once the transformer replaces copper with aluminum, the disposal cost is high. The best way is to detect and consult before purchasing to avoid purchasing aluminum instead of copper transformer.
Industry experts believe that under what price conditions may be replaced by aluminum for copper, which manufacturers may replace copper with aluminum, and which enterprises have guaranteed transformer quality, can give advice to users. In addition, the power grid company as a professional transformer procurement customer, has a lot of mature transformer quality management experience, which has a good reference for transformer users in other industries.
The investigation also found that many customers' transformer purchase contracts are very simple. Once the transformer replaced copper with aluminum, there is no claim basis and calculation method for compensation loss in the contract, which leads to difficulty in claim and heavy losses for users.
Industry insiders suggest that the corresponding compensation clause should be added in the transformer procurement contract, and the compensation liability and compensation amount should be increased, including: direct loss, indirect loss, loss of profit, lawyer's fee, transportation fee, detection fee, court litigation and execution fee, daily loss of shutdown and shutdown, replacement cost, labor cost caused by claim, etc Good estimate, can be based on the amount of experience plus increased liability provisions in the contract. It should be stipulated that in the whole life cycle, if the transformer is found to be replaced by aluminum for copper, the relevant suppliers, intermediaries, contractors and manufacturing enterprises shall bear unlimited joint and several liability in the compensation liability of replacing copper with aluminum. In addition, in case of replacing copper with aluminum, the contract can stipulate that the legal representative of the transformer manufacturing enterprise shall be liable for joint and several unlimited compensation for life.
Is it feasible to replace copper with aluminum in the field of power transmission?
According to the Research Report on the strategic planning of the application of copper and aluminum resources in the power cable Market issued by the Research Institute of resources and environmental policy of the development research center of the State Council, through the comparative analysis of copper aluminum alloy conductor and cable in many aspects, it is concluded that it is not suitable to "replace copper with aluminum" in the field of power transmission. Power grid operation experience shows that 80% of the power cable faults occur at the joints. In this regard, copper has incomparable advantages over aluminum and aluminum alloy. Even if it is oxidized, the copper oxide generated is still an excellent conductor, which can ensure the electrical connection performance of joints and terminals; Even if the aluminum alloy cable has good construction technology guarantee, after the oxidation of the joint or terminal, the aluminum oxide generated is the insulator, which will lead to the deterioration of the conductivity of the joint or terminal, which will aggravate the heating of the joint or terminal, so as to make the oxidation more serious.
Many power accidents are accompanied by fire. The general power cable fire, initially due to excessive Joule heat caused by abnormal temperature rise. The common causes are the increase of cable joint resistance, aging of insulation layer, leakage to ground or leakage between lines, etc. The increase of cable temperature will aggravate the cause of temperature and form positive feedback, which will make the cable vulnerable to fire. Once a cable fire occurs, the fire is fierce and spreads rapidly. A large number of harmful gases will occur during the combustion, which makes it difficult to put out the fire. Not only the fire cable loop will be affected, but also other cables in the cable trench. After the cable is burned out, the repair time is long and the loss is serious.
In a word, the problem of substituting aluminum for copper in transformers is considered by many people in the industry to be merely a problem of the decline in the manufacturing quality of industrial products caused by low prices. However, its essence is a major social problem, and its harm degree is far beyond people's expectation. Just like fake medicine and fake food, we must not wait until the "big head baby" is born or the explosion of transformers in high-rise buildings of enterprises and residents causes serious consequences before issuing severe sanctions.
It is the responsibility, obligation and responsibility of the times to fight against the behavior of replacing copper with aluminum in transformer.